To celebrate WebAssign’s 15th anniversary, each Monday we will be bringing you 15 anniversaries in science, technology, mathematics, and education that you can look forward to throughout the week. Here are some important dates in history coming up this week:
1841 – Swiss physician and medical scientist Emil Theodor Kocher is born. Kocher’s research of the physiology, diseases of, treatments of, and surgery of the thyroid greatly improves the survival rate of patients with thyroid disease. After witnessing the effectiveness of the aseptic surgical procedures pioneered by Joseph Lister, Kocher becomes an outspoken, early proponent of aseptic surgical methods. Kocher receives the Nobel prize for his research on the thyroid, which improves the survival rate of patients undergoing thyroid removal from about 25% to 99%.
1900 – German biochemist and physician Hans Adolf Krebs is born. Krebs discovers and studies the metabolic cycles known as the urea cycle, and the citric acid cycle. The citric acid cycle is known as the Krebs Cycle. Krebs receives the Nobel prize for his work on the citric acid cycle.
1873 – American inventor Lee De Forest is born. De Forest invents the Audion, a vacuum tube designed to amplify electrical signals. De Forest is a pioneer in the field of electronics, conducting the first wireless ship to shore communication. De Forest dislikes the word “wireless”, and chooses for the method of communication to be called “radio“. De Forest claims over 180 patents, including the first patent for a method of sound-on-film, the Phonofilm.
1906 – Polish-American medical researcher Albert Sabin is born. Sabin develops an improved oral live polio vaccine, which is distributed to millions of people in at-risk populations around the world.
1915 – American physicist Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr. is born. Ramsey is group leader of a research group at the Los Alamos Laboratory during the Manhattan Project, and later receives the Nobel prize for his research related to the creation of an accurate atomic clock. The time unit of measurement the second is based on the atomic clock research conducted by Ramsey.
1939 – The first jet aircraft powered entirely by turbojet, the Heinkel He 178, is flown by Erich Warsitz.
1958 – Russian mechanical engineer and cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev is born. Krikalev has spent time aboard the Mir space station and the International Space Station, and participated in six missions for the Russian Federal Space Agency and NASA. Krikalev has cumulatively spent over two years in space, more than any other person in history.
1749 – German writer and scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe is born. Goethe publishes several papers and texts on the subjects of color, mineralogy, morphology, homology, and meteorology that prove influential to later research into these subjects.
1831 – The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is discovered by the English scientist Michael Faraday.
1910 – American surgeon Vivien Thomas is born. Thomas develops a surgical treatment for blue baby syndrome.
1959 – English physicist and mathematician Stephen Wolfram is born. Wolfram co-founds Wolfram Research, which develops the computational software Mathematica.
1852 – Dutch chemist Jacobus Henricus van ‘t Hoff, Jr. is born. Van ‘t Hoff’s work is foundational to the modern fields of physical chemistry and organic chemistry. Van ‘t Hoff’s research into chemical kinetics and stereochemistry earns him the first Nobel prize awarded for chemistry in 1901.
1871 – New Zealand physicist and chemist Ernest Rutherford is born. Rutherford is a pioneer in the field of nuclear physics, and oversees the Geiger-Marsden experiment which confirms the existence of the atomic nucleus. Rutherford discovers and names the proton, discovers the concept of radioactive half-life, and participates in the discovery of the neutron.
1909 – The Burgess Shale fossil field is discovered by American paleontologist Charles Doolittle Walcott. Walcott spends the next 15 years collecting over 65,000 fossil specimens.
1895 – The Navigable Balloon is patented by German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin.